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4000 m peaks of the Alps

What is a summit, what is not ? There are about as many criteria as people climbing those peaks. It becomes especially "important" when it comes to the 4000 m peaks of the Alps - are there 60 or 80 of them?
The main criterion for being a summit is the height by which it is separated from its neighbours. Hundred meters clearly make up a summit, but also 30 m were mentioned as "valid".
Correspondingly, there are different lists of the 4000 m peaks, established by different persons. In the following list I will mention the list by Karl Blodig ("B",[1] - the first person having climbed all 4000 m peaks in the Alps [at least those matching his criteria]), Richard Goedeke ("G",[2]), the "official" list of UIAA ("U",[3]) and my own count ("H", which basically is derived from [1] and [2]).

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MountainHeightDiffi-
culty
Listsgap
height
AreaWas Hartmut already there?
BGUH
1Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey 4112

E

×××× 178Mont Blanc  
2Aiguille Verte 4122

D

×××× 688Mont Blanc 1996  
3Aiguille de Bionnassay 4052

C

×××× 164Mont Blanc 1990  
4Aiguille de Rochefort 4001

C

×××× 106Mont Blanc 1994  
5Aiguille du Jardin 4035

E

×××× 37Mont Blanc  
6Aletschhorn 4195

B

××××1017Bern 1988 1989  
7Allalinhorn 4027

A

×××× 245VS Mischabel 1985 1995 1998 2000  
8Alphubel 4206

B

×××× 355VS Mischabel 1987 1989 1992 1993 1993 2004 2006  
9Balmenhorn 4167

A

---× 10VS Monte Rosa 1987 1987 1988 1989 1991 1991 1993  
10Barre des Ecrins 4102

C

××××2044Ecrins  
11Bishorn 4153

A

×××× 95VS Weisshorn 1989 1990 1992 2001  
12Breithorn 4164

A

×××× 433VS Lyskamm 2001  
13Breithorn Zentral 4159 --×- 83VS Lyskamm  
14Breithornzwillinge Ost 4106 --×- 36VS Lyskamm  
15Breithornzwillinge West 4141 --×- 119VS Lyskamm  
16Castor 4228

B

×××× 165VS Lyskamm 1989  
17Corne du Diable (Aig. du Diable) 4064 --×- 19Mont Blanc  
18Dent Blanche 4357

D

×××× 910VS Weisshorn 1998  
19Dent d'Hérens 4171

C

×××× 692VS Matterhorn 2000  
20Dent du Géant 4013

E

×××× 139Mont Blanc 2003  
21Dom 4545

B

××××1046VS Mischabel 1990 1995  
22Dufourspitze 4634

C

××××2165VS Monte Rosa 1989  
23Dôme de Neige des Ecrins 4015

B

--×- 41Ecrins 1991  
24Dôme de Rochefort 4015

C

×××× 190Mont Blanc 1994  
25Dôme du Goûter 4304

A

--×× 54Mont Blanc 1988 1989 1990  
26Dürrenhorn 4035

B

×××× 119VS Mischabel 2000  
27Finsteraarhorn 4274

C

××××2270Bern 1997  
28Gran Paradiso 4061

B

××××1873Gran Paradiso 1986 1990 1992 2007  
29Grand Combin de Grafeneire 4314

C

××××1517VS Gd.Combin 1999  
30Grand Combin de Tsessette 4141 --×- 51VS Gd.Combin  
31Grand Combin de Valsorey 4184 --×- 52VS Gd.Combin 1999  
32Grand Pilier d'Angle 4243 --×- 3Mont Blanc  
33Grande Rocheuse 4102

D

×××× 52Mont Blanc  
34Grandes Jorasses 4208

C

×××× 843Mont Blanc 2001  
35Gross Fiescherhorn 4049

B

×××× 395Bern 1991  
36Gross Grünhorn 4044

B

×××× 305Bern 1997  
37Hinter Fiescherhorn 4025

B

×××× 102Bern 1991  
38Hohberghorn 4219

B

×××× 77VS Mischabel 1996  
39Jungfrau 4158

B

×××× 683Bern 1993  
40L'Isolée (Aig. du Diable) 4114 --×- 36Mont Blanc  
41Lagginhorn 4010

B

×××× 511VS Weissmies 1990 2002  
42Lauteraarhorn 4042

C

×××× 128Bern 2001  
43Lenzspitze 4294

D

×××× 81VS Mischabel 1985  
44Les Droites 4000

D

×××× 204Mont Blanc 2001  
45Ludwigshöhe 4341

A

×××× 58VS Monte Rosa 1987 1989 1993  
46Lyskamm 4527

C

×××× 376VS Lyskamm 1991  
47Lyskamm West 4479 --×- 82VS Lyskamm  
48Matterhorn 4478

D

××××1031VS Matterhorn 1996  
49Mont Blanc 4810

B

××××4800Mont Blanc 1988 1989 1990 1993 1995 2003  
50Mont Blanc de Courmayeur 4748 --×- 7Mont Blanc  
51Mont Blanc du Tacul 4248

B

×××× 213Mont Blanc 1991  
52Mont Brouillard 4069

B

×××× 39Mont Blanc  
53Mont Maudit 4465

B

×××× 162Mont Blanc 1991  
54Mönch 4107

B

×××× 578Bern 1992 1993  
55Nadelhorn 4327

B

×××× 206VS Mischabel 1985 1990 1997 2000  
56Nordend 4609

B

×××× 94VS Monte Rosa 1990a  
57Obergabelhorn 4063

D

×××× 536VS Weisshorn 1997  
58Parrotspitze 4432

B

×××× 136VS Monte Rosa 1987 1991  
59Pico Luigi Amedeo 4460 --×- 40Mont Blanc  
60Piramide Vincent 4215

A

×××× 128VS Monte Rosa 1988 1989 1991 1993  
61Piz Bernina 4049

C

××××2132Bernina 1994 2000  
62Pointe Carmen (Aig. du Diable) 4109 --×- 55Mont Blanc  
63Pointe Chaubert (Aig. du Diable) 4074 --×- 57Mont Blanc  
64Pointe Croz (Grandes Jorasses) 4110 --×- 10Mont Blanc  
65Pointe Médiane (Aig. du Diable) 4097 --×- 40Mont Blanc  
66Pointe Whymper 4184 --×- 51Mont Blanc  
67Pollux 4092

C

×××× 247VS Lyskamm 2001  
68Punta Baretti 4013

B

×××× 56Mont Blanc  
69Punta Elena (Grandes Jorasses) 4045 --×- 10Mont Blanc  
70Punta Giordani 4046

B

×-×× 5VS Monte Rosa 2001  
71Punta Margherita (Grandes Jorasses)4065 --×- 50Mont Blanc  
72Rimpfischhorn 4199

C

×××× 635VS Mischabel 1986a 1987 1994 1996a  
73Roccia Nera (Breithorn) 4075 --×- 30VS Lyskamm  
74Schreckhorn 4078

D

×××× 785Bern  
75Schwarzhorn 4321

B

×××× 42VS Monte Rosa 1987 1989  
76Signalkuppe 4554

B

×××× 102VS Monte Rosa 1988 1991  
77Stecknadelhorn 4241

C

×××× 23VS Mischabel 2000  
78Strahlhorn 4190

B

×××× 626VS Mischabel 1985 1986 1996 1999  
79Täschhorn 4491

D

×××× 209VS Mischabel 2000a  
80Weisshorn 4505

D

××××1234VS Weisshorn 1990  
81Weissmies 4023

B

××××1188VS Weissmies 1984 1985 1987 1989 1991  
82Wengen Jungfrau 4089 ---- 27Bern  
83Zinalrothorn 4221

D

×××× 490VS Weisshorn 1990  
84Zumsteinspitze 4563

B

×××× 111VS Monte Rosa 1988 1991  
In case of the ascents marked by a, we did not completely reach the main summit.
[1] Karl Blodig, Helmut Dumler, "Die Viertausender der Alpen", Bergverlag Rudolf Rother
[2] Richard Goedeke, "4000er - die Normalwege", Verlag J. Berg
[3] Die Alpen 70, S.14 (Jan. 1994): This list was compiled by Gino Buscaini (CAI), François Labande (CAF), and Maurice Brandt (SAC). It is based on a topographic criterion of 30 height meters and additional subjective criteria (morphologic and alpinistic). Therefore Mont Blanc de Courmayeur is included because it is (as the authors state) morphologically and alpinistically independent, as also all five summits of Grandes Jorasses. All summits of Breithorns fulfil the topographic criterion (except Roccia Nera, however fulfilling the two other conditions).

I personally adhere to the old Blodig/Goedeke list. I must admit, however, that Punta Giordani, Dôme du Goûter and Balmenhorn are really a matter of personal taste.

Difficulties given in the table above:

(The five categories A to E are my personal grading scheme, not a "standard")

A

relatively easy (F to PD)

B

moderate (PD)

C

moderate to difficult (PD to AD)

D

rather difficult (AD)

E

difficult (D)

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Program code last modified December 02, 2003 by Hartmut Bielefeldt.
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